70 Capture and destruction of Jerusalem by Titus
132 Uprising of Bar-Kokhba against Rome, in Jerusalem
135 Adrian puts down the revolt. Resistance and collective suicide of the Jews in Massada. The Jews are expelled from Israel.
175 Compilation of the Mishnah by Yehida ha-Nasi, as a realization of the Torah, in Galilee.
220 Hebrew stone of Adra
314 Council of Elvira (Granada). Already special attention is given to Jewihs/Hispanic relaitons.
415 Visigothic invasion of the Peninsula. The Aryan Visigoths protect the Jews.
589 III Council of Toledo. King Ricared's conversion to Catholicism, and reinstitution of the repressive laws set out in the Council of Elvira.
612 Sisebut ascends to the Visigothic throne, with the aim of fulfilling the precepts of the III Toledo Council. Edict of expulsion.
629 The Jews are expelled from the Frankish kingdom of Dagobert. Emperior Heraclitus conquers Jerusalem.
633 IV Council of Toledo. Orders the total separation between Jews and Christians.
675 Return of Jews to Spain under the reign of Wamba.
694 XVII Council of Toledo. King Egica persecuties the Jews, accusing them of collaborating with the Moroccan Muslims.
711 Muslim invasion of the Peninsula. A period of flourishing for the Jews begins in Muslim Spain. The invasion is under the command of Muza ben Nossair, a Muslim, and Tarik, a Berber recognized as Jewish of the tribe of Simeon.
845 Ramiro I of Asturias has magicians and necromancers in his kingdom burned. Among the condemned are some Jews.
863 Mohammed I convokes an ecumenical council in Cordova, attended by Christians, Jews and Muslims.
875 Judah the Hebrew settles in Barcelona under the rule of Carlos the Bad.
900 First reference to presence of Jews in Leon.
905 First references to existence of Jewish communities in Navarra.
958 Hasdai ben Shaprut of Cordova cures Sancho I el Craso, King of Leon and Navarra, of his obesity.
958 Hasdai ben Shaprut dies, having reached the highest political positions of Al-Andalus.
974 Charter of Castrojeriz. In it Fernan Gonzalez of Castilla authorizes equal rights to Christians and Jews.
993 Samuel HaNagid (Ibn Nagrela) is born.
1002 Death of the Muslim caudillo Almanzor and beginning of the disintegration of the Cordovan Caliphate. The Jews scatter throughout the kingdoms of Taifas.
1013 Slaughter of Jews in Cordova, caused by Jewish intervention in internal fights for the Caliphate.
1020 Council of Leon. First laws of this kingdom relevant to Jews. Solomon ibn Gabirol is born.
1035 Attack and slaughter on the Jewish quarter of Castrojeriz on the death of Sancho III the Large.
1050 News of the presence in Barcelona of Jews, mostly working at coinage.
1056 Death of Samuel Hanagid (Ibn Nagrela)
1058 Death of Ibn Gabirol.
1066 slaughter of Jews in the Kingdom of Granada.Pope Alexander II advises Castilian bishops to respect Jewish ways of life.
1069 Considerable activity by astronomer Ben Yahia (Arzaquiel) , compiler of the Toledo tables.
1979 Code of Usage, and regulating Jewish life in the county of Barcelona. Another massacre of Jews in Granada.
1085 Alfonso VI conquers Toledo. A major wave of immigration, or rather re-immigration, comes from Andalusia to Chrisytian Spain.
1086 Some 40 thousand Jews join the battle against the Almoravids in Zalaca.
1088 Castilian Orthodox Jews persecute Karaite Jews who arrived with Muslims, forcing them to settle only in border areas.
1090 Alphonso VI of Castile passes the Christian-Jewish Charter, regulating their rights and obligations in his kingdom.
1099 Geoffroi de Bullion conquers Jerusalem.
1107 Yusuf ben Texufin and his Almoravids establish a post in the Jewish city of Lucena.
1109 Massacres in the Castilian Jewish communities after the king's death
1123 Burgos Jews organize a volunteer squadron to fight for Castile against Sancho Aznar
1125 Yehuda Halevi writes "The Khazari"
1126 The School of Translators of Toledo is founded; many members are Jewish intellectuals.
1127 Birth of Benjamin of Tudela
1130 date given for the arrival of the Messiah; a false Messiah, Moshe Dray, appears in Cordova.
1132 Intellectual flourishing of Abraham ibn Ezra
1139 Alphonso VII of Castile concedes a special fuero to the Jews of Guadelajara, permitting them to outfit themselves like the knights of his kingdom.
1145 The King of Navaraa, Garcia Ramirez, cedes the Estella synagogue to the bishop of Pamplona to christianize it.
1148 Almohad invasion of Andalusia and destruction of the Jewish city Lucena. Massive Jewish emigration to the Christian zone of the Peninsula.
1150 The School of Translators in Toledo is enriched by Gerard of Cremona's joining it.
1156 Toledan Jews intervene in the political battles created by Alphonso VII's minroity age.
1162 Granada's Jews and Muslims rise against the Almohad invaders. Strong repression of this resistance.
1170 King Sancho of Navarre has the Jews defend the castles of Tudela and Funes. Ferdinand II concedes a fuero to the Jews of Salamanca.
1177 The fuero of Palencia removes Jews from royal jurisdiction and makes them directly dependent on the bishop and the cabildo (clergy organization).
1180 Massacre of Jews in Toledo, instigated by high-level members of the Castilian court and probably by the legend of the Jewess Rachel. At the bottom of the massacre lies the Christian defeat at Alarcos and the suspicion that the Toledo Jews were selling Christian slaves to the Almohads in the battlefield itself.
1190 Fuero of Cuenca. It implies equal treatment for Christians and Jews but in any event the two peoples end up with different domestic treatment.
1196 The Leon juderia (Jewish Quarter) is burned down by order of Alphonso VIII of Castile and Pedro II of Aragon. The Leon Jews aretreated as slaves.
1200 About this time Kabbala studies begin in the peninsular Christian kingdoms.
1204 First Hebrew translation of Maimonides' "Guide for the Perplexed."
1208 Greatest growth of the Palencia Jewish community under the protection of the bishop and the cabildo.
1212 Battle of Navas de Tolosa. This prefigures in the end of the Almohad rule and the beginning of the great Castilian reconquest.
1213 City charter of Tlascala (Toledo), with considerable privileges for the Jewish community.
1215 Fourth Council of Letran. It specifies that Jews in Christian Europe must wear items distinguishing them from Christians.
1219 Agreement of the Archbishop of Toledo, Ximenez de Rada, with the Jews of his diocese. St Ferdinand III succeeds in having Pope Honorius III exempt the Castilian Jews from having to wear distinguishing items.
1225 First reference in public writings to the presence of Jews in the Principality of Asturias.
1228 On Good Friday, an attempt to pillage the aljama of Gerona.. The Jews are rescued at the last minute by the troops of Jaime the Conqueror.
1230 Attacks on various juderias of the Kingdom of Leon as a result of the death of Alphonso XI.
1232 The Holy Office of the Inquisition is established, in the hands of the Domenicans.
1233 The Archbishop of St James of Compostela decrees that Galician Jews pay the requisite taxes, in the Council of Letran (see 1215).
1234 Franciscan monks of the south of France publicly burn Maimonides' books.
1235 Death of the Kabbalist Ezra ben-Salomon. Conquest of Mallorca by Jaime I the Conqueror. The island has a strong contingent of Jewish citizens whom the Catalan-Aragonese king fully respects.
1238 Jaime I takes Valencia. The king treats the Jews of the city well, as they are presumed to have collaborated in the conquest, and concedes favours to them.
1240 The Jews begin to occupy important posts in the Kingdom of Castile.
1247 Charter of the town of Carmona (Seville). Privileges established for Jews coming to live in the city.
1248 Conquest of Seville, with condition of capitulation being that the city be handed over with no Muslims there.
1249 Jaime of Aragon concedes privileges to the Jews of his kingdom for working at guild occupations
1250 Pope Innocent IV forces the Castilian bishops to severely enforce the separation between Jews and Christians in their dioceses.
1252 Royal epitaph in Latin, Castilian, Arabic and Hebrew.
1256 A papal bull of Alexander IV permits King Theobald II of Navarra to prohibit the Jews of his kingdom from practicing usury.
1257 Jaime I of Aragon protects the Lerida aljama from the burning of Jewish books ordered by Pope Gregory IX.
1263 Jaime I of Aragon orders that pages of Jewish books judged harmful or contrary to Christianity be blotted out. The disputations continue between the Kabbalist Nahmanides of Girona and the converso Pau Cristia.
1265 Trial of Nahmanides.
1266 In Zaragoza a bridge is built over the Ebro River with the money from taxes paid by the city's Jews.
1267 The rabbinical university of Barcelona is authorized to be set up. Nahmanides emigrates to Israel.
1270 Death of Nahmanides in Akko.
1272 Jaime I's son-in-law takes over Murcia (city) and has the Jews live apart from the Christians.
1273 Jaime I confirms the privileges and franchises conceded to the Jews on the occasion of his conquest of the islands where they were living.
1274 Christian attack on the town of San Cernin od Pamplona, with the collaboration of the Jews of La Navarreria.
1277 Destruction of La Navarreria with Pamplona's aljama by French soldiers, as a result of the events of 1275.
1278 Another pillaging of the Jewish quarter of Girona, initiated by the bishop Pere de Castellnou. The Jews are protected by King Pedro III.
1280 Imprisonment and execution of the Jewish almojarife Don Cag de la Meleha by order of Alphonso X.
1281 Extraordinary special tax imposed on the aljamas of Castile and Leon, 12 thousand maravedis.
1282 Pedro III of Aragon reduces the eligibility of the kingdom's Jews to hold public posts and collect taxes.
1284 Pedro III demands extraordinary tributes from the Aragon Jews to fortigy the borders against the French threat.
1285 The Almogavars, mercenary troops of Aragon, pillage the Girona Call (Jewish quarter) before entering the battle against the troops of Philip of France. Pedro III orders the organizers of the riot hanged.
1286 Moses of Leon finishes the Book of the Zohar, fundamnetal work of the Kabbala.
1288 The Jews of Huesca contibute to the campaign of Alphonso III of Aragon in Sicily by paying extraordinary tributes.
1290 Expulsion of the Jews from England.
1291 Division of Huete.
1293 Valladolid Cortes. Repressive laws against Jews.
1294 First known accusation in Spain of a ritual crime, supposedly committed by Jews, in Zaragoza.
1295 Prophecies of the Castilian rabbis point to this year as that of the Messiah's arrival (5055 of the Jewish calendar).
1297 An edict of Jaime II places the Jews under the jurisdiciton - and whims - of the Aragonese bishops and the Order of Dominicans.
1301 The Council of Toro orders that complaints against Jews be submitted to a judhe designated by the king and not of their own choice.
1305 The Cortes meeting in Medina del Campo obtain from Ferdinand IV of Castile the promise that the Jews will no longer collect taxes.
1306 Expulsion of the Jews from the kingdoms of France.
1308 The Seneschal of Estella acts against the Jews.
1309 Ritual crime accusation in Mallorca. Severe restrictive measures against the Jews.
1311 The Council of Vienna annuls the order of the Templars and tries to help the Jews.
1312 Certain irregularities in the pages of the aljama taxes oblige Ferdinand IV to restructure the payment system, in the Palencia Cortes.
1313 A Council convoked in Zamora and the Cortes de las Dueñas place reestrictions on the Jews, including prohibiting Jewish doctors from attending Christians.
1315 The bishop of Mallorca imposes fines on the city's Jews and reduces their privileges. Construction of the still-standing Cordova synagogue.
1319 Rebuilding of la Navarreria of Pamplona and the city's aljama, by order of King Carlos IV, after its destruction in 1277.
1320 Massacre of Jews by French troops in the north of Aragon and Navarra, beginning of the so-called Shepherds' War.
1321 Conversion of Avner of Burgos.
1322 The bishop of Zaragoza confiscates the property of the city's Jews in the name of the church.
1326 Jews of the Muslim kingdom of Granada obliged to wear distinguishing signs to differentiate them from the Muslims.
1327 Attacks on various Navarra juderias while the kongdom is without a monarch after the death of Carlos IV.
1328 Alphonoso IV of Aragon welcomes Jews emigrating from Navarra where, especially in Tudela, they were enduring heavy persecution after the death of King Carlos IV and the dynastic crisis occasioned by it. The Jewish chroniclers estimate that more than 10,000 Jews died in this pogrom, though this number seems excessive.
1336 The Jews of La Navarreria of Pamplona reduced to living in a closed juderia.
1340 The Portuguese aljamas reach a nation-wide agreement to pay the royal tributes collectively.
1341 Sevilla City Hall decrees that Jews may sell their products and carry out business transactions only within the aljamas where they live.
1348 The Black Plague. The juderias of Navarra are especially affected by the epidemic. There are attacks and massacres in Aragon and especially in Barcelona, Girona and Tarragon in Catalonia, and Valencia, Sagunto, and Cortes de Alcala. Alphonso XI proposes that the Jews leave off being bankers and take up agriculture.
1350 Samuel Halevi named Treasurer of Pedro I of Castile.
1351 Cortes of Valladolid: new anti-Jewish restrictions
1354 The Castilian aljamas call a meeting to deal with common problems, especially the phenomenon of the malsines or informers, among the conversos.
1355 Attack on the Toledo juderia by the troops of the Pretender to the Throne of Castile, the bastard Henry of Trastamara; an estimated 1200 Jews die.
1357 Construction of the El Transito synagogue in Toledo.
1360 Massacre of Jews in Najera after the battle outise the city between the troops of Pedro I and those of the Pretender Henry of Trastamara.
1361 Samuel Halevi dies at the hands of Pedro I of Caastile.
1366 Bertrand Duguesclin surrounds Toledo. The Jews of the aljama resist bravely, defending the gate of Cambron, next tot he juderia. Various Castilian juderias are decimated by the foreign mercenaries fighting on one side or the other. Especially damaged are the juderias of Briviesca, Aguilar de Campo and Villadiego.
1369 A royal Castilian decree orders the confiscation of all Toledo Jews' property, while raising their taxes.
1370 A massacre exterminates the entire Jewish community of the Belgian city of Brussels. Queen Juana of Navarra protects the Jews threatened in her kingdom.
1371 Pedro IV of Aragon forbids the Jews of Valencia to live outside the Jewish quarter assigned to them. Cortes of Toro, new anti-Jewish measures.
1375 Abraham Cresques, a Mallorcan Jew, produces the Catalan Atlas. First complaints by the Jews against the anti-Semitic ravings of Ferrant Martinez, called Archdean of Ecija. Pope Gregory XI reminds the Crown of Castile of its duty not to protect the Jews.
1379 Juan I of Castile places the Jews of his kingdom under the protection of his horsemen of Espinosa. For this effort the Jews must pay a tax of 12 maravedis for each Torah.
1380 Massacres of Jews in France begin and continue till 1382.
1382 Prince Juan of Aragon authorizes construction of a new synagogue in Zaragoza.
1383 The aljama of Seville protests their treatment by the Archdean of Ecija, who openly proclaims a pogrom, to Juan I of Castile. Jews are forbidden to live in Christian neighbourhoods.
1384 The aljamas of Navarra, in bad shape, join forces to pay the royal taxes. The Pamplona community at this time is especially impoverished.
1385 English troops of the Duke of Lancaster take the town of Ribadavia, in Galicia. The juderia is pillaged and set fire to, after the Jews' defense of the town.
1388 Don Pedro Tenorio, bishop of Toledo, names his doctor, Rabbi Hayen, as chief rabbi of the city.
1389 Don Pedro Gomez Barroso, archbishop of Seville, prohibits Ferrant Martinez'(Archdean of Ecija) anti-Jewish activities.
1390 Census of Jews of Castilla: 3600 heads of families are counted, The archbishop of Seville dies and the archdean of Ecija takes over the diocese, immediately ordering the destruction of the synagogues and all the Hebrew books there, and the transporting of Jewish holy lamps to the Seville cathedral. Juan I of Castile dies in Alcala de Henares. Conversion of Solomon Halevi (Pablo de Santa Maria), chief rabbi of Castile, and his entire family.
1391 In June, the huge pogrom against Jews in Valencia and Barcelona begins.
1392 Juan I of Aragon founds Barcelona's second aljama and permits the creation of a new rabbinical college.
1395 Henry III of Castile castigates the archdean of Ecija as a "persecutor of the people."
1401 Martin I forbids the reconstruction of the Barcelona Jewish quarter. Carlos of Navarra sells the property of his kingdom's Jews.
1404 The courts of Valladolid are the only ones in Castile to declare themselves favourable to the persecuted Jews of the kingdom.
1406 Death of Henry III of Castile. His physician, Don Meir, is accused of having caused it, and is submitted to torture, from which he dies.
1408 Castilian and Aragonese Jews forbidden to live outside the juderias and obliged to wear distinctive markings.
1412 Reduction of the statute of "convivencia" between Jews and Christians proposed by Queen Catherine of Lancaster and possibly written out and directed by the Burgos bishop Don Pablo de Santa Maria, himself a converted Jew. The Domenican Vicente Ferrer begins his preaching to work on the mass conversion of peninsular Jews. The synagogue is turned into a church, today Corpus Christi. Restrictive laws of Ayllon and Cifuentes.
1413 The so-called Disputations of Tortosa: José HaLorki, fanatic converso,debates against rabbis of the Aragon aljamas.
1415 Bull of Pope Benedict XIII, the Antipope, seemingly against the Jews. It provokes mass conversions. Synagogues in Barbastro and several Catalan towns converted to churches.
1424 Alphonso V of Aragon forbids Jews to settle in Barcelona, permitting only transit residency permits, and only if they wear distinguishing signs.
1429 An epidemic decimates the Zaragoza juderia.
1432 Jewish synod in Valladolid, presided over by Rabbi Abraham Benveniste.
1434 Council of Basel. Castile's representative to it is Alphonso of Cartagena, a converso, son of the bishop Pablo de Santa Maria. His defence of social and ecclesiastic privileges of Castile is remembered.
1435 Pablo de Santa Maria dies (converso and archbishop of Burgos)
1448 A new epidemic gravely affects the Aragon juderias.
1449 Thirteen Jews from Toledo's main Jewish families are excluded from their public posts after a massacre in the aljama. Pillaging and murders in the juderia of Ciudad Real.
1461 The Fortalitium Fidei of the converso Brother Alonso de Espina, against the Jews; will be used in inquisitors' manuals.
1467 Toledo conversos instigate an uprising in the city and are severely punished.
1469 Complaint in the Cortes of Ocaña, about the usury activities of Castilian Jews.
1473 The "Perpetual Alamanach" appears, by the Salamanca Jew Abraham Zacuto. Burning of Jews in Valladolid, persecution of conversos in Cordova.
1474 The mayor of the Alcazar of Segovia, the converso Andres Cabrera, manages with great difficulty to avoid a massive massacre of the Jews in Segovia's aljama.
1476 A supposed Jewish religious service on Good Friday provokes a violent popular reaction against the Jews in Castile.
1480 The Cortes called in Toledo agree on forbidding "convivencia" of Jews and Christians in Castile. Chief inquisitors named in Castile and Aragon.
1481 Publication of an edict of amnesty for 20 thousand conversos in Castile to escape the tribunals of the Inquisition, which begins to operate in Seville.
1482 First Jewish printing press installed in Guadalajara. David Kimhi's "Commentaries" are published.
1483 A tribunal of the Holy Office set up in Ciudad Real. New chief inquistor named.
1484 Burgos administrators act to stop Jews from doing business in comestibles and victuals.
1485 Expulsion of the Jews from Andalusia completed.
1486 The city of Vitoria takes repressive measures against its Jews.
1487 The Catholic Monarchs take Malaga. Don Abraham Senior, royal administrator, manages to save many Jews for 20,000 doblas jaquesas, sending them towards Africa in two galleys.
1491 The siege of Granada begins. Don Abraham Senior and Don Isaac Abravanel help fill the Christian coffers. Trial of the so-called Niño de la Guardia.
1492 January: Granada is taken. The city's Jews given assurances. Edict of Expulsion, decreed by the Kings of Castile and Aragon. July: the non-converted Jews of Spain leave.