Spanish-Jewish Chronology

Year   Events
70  Capture and destruction of Jerusalem by Titus
132  Uprising of Bar-Kokhba against Rome, in Jerusalem
135  Adrian puts down the revolt. Resistance and collective suicide of the Jews in Massada. The Jews are expelled from Israel.
175  Compilation of the Mishnah by Yehida ha-Nasi, as a realization of the Torah, in Galilee.
220  Hebrew stone of Adra
314  Council of Elvira (Granada). Already special attention is given to Jewihs/Hispanic relaitons.
415  Visigothic invasion of the Peninsula. The Aryan Visigoths protect the Jews.
589  III Council of Toledo. King Ricared's conversion to Catholicism, and reinstitution of the repressive laws set out in the Council of Elvira.
612  Sisebut ascends to the Visigothic throne, with the aim of fulfilling the precepts of the III Toledo Council. Edict of expulsion.
629  The Jews are expelled from the Frankish kingdom of Dagobert. Emperior Heraclitus conquers Jerusalem.
633  IV Council of Toledo. Orders the total separation between Jews and Christians.
675  Return of Jews to Spain under the reign of Wamba.
694  XVII Council of Toledo. King Egica persecuties the Jews, accusing them of collaborating with the Moroccan Muslims.
711  Muslim invasion of the Peninsula. A period of flourishing for the Jews begins in Muslim Spain. The invasion is under the command of Muza ben Nossair, a Muslim, and Tarik, a Berber recognized as Jewish of the tribe of Simeon.
845  Ramiro I of Asturias has magicians and necromancers in his kingdom burned. Among the condemned are some Jews.
863  Mohammed I convokes an ecumenical council in Cordova, attended by Christians, Jews and Muslims.
875  Judah the Hebrew settles in Barcelona under the rule of Carlos the Bad.
900  First reference to presence of Jews in Leon.
905  First references to existence of Jewish communities in Navarra.
958  Hasdai ben Shaprut of Cordova cures Sancho I el Craso, King of Leon and Navarra, of his obesity.
958  Hasdai ben Shaprut dies, having reached the highest political positions of Al-Andalus.
974  Charter of Castrojeriz. In it Fernan Gonzalez of Castilla authorizes equal rights to Christians and Jews.
993  Samuel HaNagid (Ibn Nagrela) is born.
1002  Death of the Muslim caudillo Almanzor and beginning of the disintegration of the Cordovan Caliphate. The Jews scatter throughout the kingdoms of Taifas.
1013  Slaughter of Jews in Cordova, caused by Jewish intervention in internal fights for the Caliphate.
1020  Council of Leon. First laws of this kingdom relevant to Jews. Solomon ibn Gabirol is born.
1035  Attack and slaughter on the Jewish quarter of Castrojeriz on the death of Sancho III the Large.
1050  News of the presence in Barcelona of Jews, mostly working at coinage.
1056  Death of Samuel Hanagid (Ibn Nagrela)
1058  Death of Ibn Gabirol.
1066  slaughter of Jews in the Kingdom of Granada.Pope Alexander II advises Castilian bishops to respect Jewish ways of life.
1069  Considerable activity by astronomer Ben Yahia (Arzaquiel) , compiler of the Toledo tables.
1979  Code of Usage, and regulating Jewish life in the county of Barcelona. Another massacre of Jews in Granada.
1085  Alfonso VI conquers Toledo. A major wave of immigration, or rather re-immigration, comes from Andalusia to Chrisytian Spain.
1086  Some 40 thousand Jews join the battle against the Almoravids in Zalaca.
1088  Castilian Orthodox Jews persecute Karaite Jews who arrived with Muslims, forcing them to settle only in border areas.
1090  Alphonso VI of Castile passes the Christian-Jewish Charter, regulating their rights and obligations in his kingdom.
1099  Geoffroi de Bullion conquers Jerusalem.
1107  Yusuf ben Texufin and his Almoravids establish a post in the Jewish city of Lucena.
1109  Massacres in the Castilian Jewish communities after the king's death
1123  Burgos Jews organize a volunteer squadron to fight for Castile against Sancho Aznar
1125  Yehuda Halevi writes "The Khazari"
1126  The School of Translators of Toledo is founded; many members are Jewish intellectuals.
1127  Birth of Benjamin of Tudela
1130  date given for the arrival of the Messiah; a false Messiah, Moshe Dray, appears in Cordova.
1132  Intellectual flourishing of Abraham ibn Ezra
1139  Alphonso VII of Castile concedes a special fuero to the Jews of Guadelajara, permitting them to outfit themselves like the knights of his kingdom.
1145  The King of Navaraa, Garcia Ramirez, cedes the Estella synagogue to the bishop of Pamplona to christianize it.
1148  Almohad invasion of Andalusia and destruction of the Jewish city Lucena. Massive Jewish emigration to the Christian zone of the Peninsula.
1150  The School of Translators in Toledo is enriched by Gerard of Cremona's joining it.
1156  Toledan Jews intervene in the political battles created by Alphonso VII's minroity age.
1162  Granada's Jews and Muslims rise against the Almohad invaders. Strong repression of this resistance.
1170  King Sancho of Navarre has the Jews defend the castles of Tudela and Funes. Ferdinand II concedes a fuero to the Jews of Salamanca.
1177  The fuero of Palencia removes Jews from royal jurisdiction and makes them directly dependent on the bishop and the cabildo (clergy organization).
1180  Massacre of Jews in Toledo, instigated by high-level members of the Castilian court and probably by the legend of the Jewess Rachel. At the bottom of the massacre lies the Christian defeat at Alarcos and the suspicion that the Toledo Jews were selling Christian slaves to the Almohads in the battlefield itself.
1190  Fuero of Cuenca. It implies equal treatment for Christians and Jews but in any event the two peoples end up with different domestic treatment.
1196  The Leon juderia (Jewish Quarter) is burned down by order of Alphonso VIII of Castile and Pedro II of Aragon. The Leon Jews aretreated as slaves.
1200  About this time Kabbala studies begin in the peninsular Christian kingdoms.
1204  First Hebrew translation of Maimonides' "Guide for the Perplexed."
1208  Greatest growth of the Palencia Jewish community under the protection of the bishop and the cabildo.
1212  Battle of Navas de Tolosa. This prefigures in the end of the Almohad rule and the beginning of the great Castilian reconquest.
1213  City charter of Tlascala (Toledo), with considerable privileges for the Jewish community.
1215  Fourth Council of Letran. It specifies that Jews in Christian Europe must wear items distinguishing them from Christians.
1219  Agreement of the Archbishop of Toledo, Ximenez de Rada, with the Jews of his diocese. St Ferdinand III succeeds in having Pope Honorius III exempt the Castilian Jews from having to wear distinguishing items.
1225  First reference in public writings to the presence of Jews in the Principality of Asturias.
1228  On Good Friday, an attempt to pillage the aljama of Gerona.. The Jews are rescued at the last minute by the troops of Jaime the Conqueror.
1230  Attacks on various juderias of the Kingdom of Leon as a result of the death of Alphonso XI.
1232  The Holy Office of the Inquisition is established, in the hands of the Domenicans.
1233  The Archbishop of St James of Compostela decrees that Galician Jews pay the requisite taxes, in the Council of Letran (see 1215).
1234  Franciscan monks of the south of France publicly burn Maimonides' books.
1235  Death of the Kabbalist Ezra ben-Salomon. Conquest of Mallorca by Jaime I the Conqueror. The island has a strong contingent of Jewish citizens whom the Catalan-Aragonese king fully respects.
1238  Jaime I takes Valencia. The king treats the Jews of the city well, as they are presumed to have collaborated in the conquest, and concedes favours to them.
1240  The Jews begin to occupy important posts in the Kingdom of Castile.
1247  Charter of the town of Carmona (Seville). Privileges established for Jews coming to live in the city.
1248  Conquest of Seville, with condition of capitulation being that the city be handed over with no Muslims there.
1249  Jaime of Aragon concedes privileges to the Jews of his kingdom for working at guild occupations
1250  Pope Innocent IV forces the Castilian bishops to severely enforce the separation between Jews and Christians in their dioceses.
1252  Royal epitaph in Latin, Castilian, Arabic and Hebrew.
1256  A papal bull of Alexander IV permits King Theobald II of Navarra to prohibit the Jews of his kingdom from practicing usury.
1257  Jaime I of Aragon protects the Lerida aljama from the burning of Jewish books ordered by Pope Gregory IX.
1263  Jaime I of Aragon orders that pages of Jewish books judged harmful or contrary to Christianity be blotted out. The disputations continue between the Kabbalist Nahmanides of Girona and the converso Pau Cristia.
1265  Trial of Nahmanides.
1266  In Zaragoza a bridge is built over the Ebro River with the money from taxes paid by the city's Jews.
1267  The rabbinical university of Barcelona is authorized to be set up. Nahmanides emigrates to Israel.
1270  Death of Nahmanides in Akko.
1272  Jaime I's son-in-law takes over Murcia (city) and has the Jews live apart from the Christians.
1273  Jaime I confirms the privileges and franchises conceded to the Jews on the occasion of his conquest of the islands where they were living.
1274  Christian attack on the town of San Cernin od Pamplona, with the collaboration of the Jews of La Navarreria.
1277  Destruction of La Navarreria with Pamplona's aljama by French soldiers, as a result of the events of 1275.
1278  Another pillaging of the Jewish quarter of Girona, initiated by the bishop Pere de Castellnou. The Jews are protected by King Pedro III.
1280  Imprisonment and execution of the Jewish almojarife Don Cag de la Meleha by order of Alphonso X.
1281  Extraordinary special tax imposed on the aljamas of Castile and Leon, 12 thousand maravedis.
1282  Pedro III of Aragon reduces the eligibility of the kingdom's Jews to hold public posts and collect taxes.
1284  Pedro III demands extraordinary tributes from the Aragon Jews to fortigy the borders against the French threat.
1285  The Almogavars, mercenary troops of Aragon, pillage the Girona Call (Jewish quarter) before entering the battle against the troops of Philip of France. Pedro III orders the organizers of the riot hanged.
1286  Moses of Leon finishes the Book of the Zohar, fundamnetal work of the Kabbala.
1288  The Jews of Huesca contibute to the campaign of Alphonso III of Aragon in Sicily by paying extraordinary tributes.
1290  Expulsion of the Jews from England.
1291  Division of Huete.
1293  Valladolid Cortes. Repressive laws against Jews.
1294  First known accusation in Spain of a ritual crime, supposedly committed by Jews, in Zaragoza.
1295  Prophecies of the Castilian rabbis point to this year as that of the Messiah's arrival (5055 of the Jewish calendar).
1297  An edict of Jaime II places the Jews under the jurisdiciton - and whims - of the Aragonese bishops and the Order of Dominicans.
1301  The Council of Toro orders that complaints against Jews be submitted to a judhe designated by the king and not of their own choice.
1305  The Cortes meeting in Medina del Campo obtain from Ferdinand IV of Castile the promise that the Jews will no longer collect taxes.
1306  Expulsion of the Jews from the kingdoms of France.
1308  The Seneschal of Estella acts against the Jews.
1309  Ritual crime accusation in Mallorca. Severe restrictive measures against the Jews.
1311  The Council of Vienna annuls the order of the Templars and tries to help the Jews.
1312  Certain irregularities in the pages of the aljama taxes oblige Ferdinand IV to restructure the payment system, in the Palencia Cortes.
1313  A Council convoked in Zamora and the Cortes de las Dueñas place reestrictions on the Jews, including prohibiting Jewish doctors from attending Christians.
1315  The bishop of Mallorca imposes fines on the city's Jews and reduces their privileges. Construction of the still-standing Cordova synagogue.
1319  Rebuilding of la Navarreria of Pamplona and the city's aljama, by order of King Carlos IV, after its destruction in 1277.
1320  Massacre of Jews by French troops in the north of Aragon and Navarra, beginning of the so-called Shepherds' War.
1321  Conversion of Avner of Burgos.
1322  The bishop of Zaragoza confiscates the property of the city's Jews in the name of the church.
1326  Jews of the Muslim kingdom of Granada obliged to wear distinguishing signs to differentiate them from the Muslims.
1327  Attacks on various Navarra juderias while the kongdom is without a monarch after the death of Carlos IV.
1328  Alphonoso IV of Aragon welcomes Jews emigrating from Navarra where, especially in Tudela, they were enduring heavy persecution after the death of King Carlos IV and the dynastic crisis occasioned by it. The Jewish chroniclers estimate that more than 10,000 Jews died in this pogrom, though this number seems excessive.
1336  The Jews of La Navarreria of Pamplona reduced to living in a closed juderia.
1340  The Portuguese aljamas reach a nation-wide agreement to pay the royal tributes collectively.
1341  Sevilla City Hall decrees that Jews may sell their products and carry out business transactions only within the aljamas where they live.
1348  The Black Plague. The juderias of Navarra are especially affected by the epidemic. There are attacks and massacres in Aragon and especially in Barcelona, Girona and Tarragon in Catalonia, and Valencia, Sagunto, and Cortes de Alcala. Alphonso XI proposes that the Jews leave off being bankers and take up agriculture.
1350  Samuel Halevi named Treasurer of Pedro I of Castile.
1351  Cortes of Valladolid: new anti-Jewish restrictions
1354  The Castilian aljamas call a meeting to deal with common problems, especially the phenomenon of the malsines or informers, among the conversos.
1355  Attack on the Toledo juderia by the troops of the Pretender to the Throne of Castile, the bastard Henry of Trastamara; an estimated 1200 Jews die.
1357  Construction of the El Transito synagogue in Toledo.
1360  Massacre of Jews in Najera after the battle outise the city between the troops of Pedro I and those of the Pretender Henry of Trastamara.
1361  Samuel Halevi dies at the hands of Pedro I of Caastile.
1366  Bertrand Duguesclin surrounds Toledo. The Jews of the aljama resist bravely, defending the gate of Cambron, next tot he juderia. Various Castilian juderias are decimated by the foreign mercenaries fighting on one side or the other. Especially damaged are the juderias of Briviesca, Aguilar de Campo and Villadiego.
1369  A royal Castilian decree orders the confiscation of all Toledo Jews' property, while raising their taxes.
1370  A massacre exterminates the entire Jewish community of the Belgian city of Brussels. Queen Juana of Navarra protects the Jews threatened in her kingdom.
1371  Pedro IV of Aragon forbids the Jews of Valencia to live outside the Jewish quarter assigned to them. Cortes of Toro, new anti-Jewish measures.
1375  Abraham Cresques, a Mallorcan Jew, produces the Catalan Atlas. First complaints by the Jews against the anti-Semitic ravings of Ferrant Martinez, called Archdean of Ecija. Pope Gregory XI reminds the Crown of Castile of its duty not to protect the Jews.
1379  Juan I of Castile places the Jews of his kingdom under the protection of his horsemen of Espinosa. For this effort the Jews must pay a tax of 12 maravedis for each Torah.
1380  Massacres of Jews in France begin and continue till 1382.
1382  Prince Juan of Aragon authorizes construction of a new synagogue in Zaragoza.
1383  The aljama of Seville protests their treatment by the Archdean of Ecija, who openly proclaims a pogrom, to Juan I of Castile. Jews are forbidden to live in Christian neighbourhoods.
1384  The aljamas of Navarra, in bad shape, join forces to pay the royal taxes. The Pamplona community at this time is especially impoverished.
1385  English troops of the Duke of Lancaster take the town of Ribadavia, in Galicia. The juderia is pillaged and set fire to, after the Jews' defense of the town.
1388  Don Pedro Tenorio, bishop of Toledo, names his doctor, Rabbi Hayen, as chief rabbi of the city.
1389  Don Pedro Gomez Barroso, archbishop of Seville, prohibits Ferrant Martinez'(Archdean of Ecija) anti-Jewish activities.
1390  Census of Jews of Castilla: 3600 heads of families are counted, The archbishop of Seville dies and the archdean of Ecija takes over the diocese, immediately ordering the destruction of the synagogues and all the Hebrew books there, and the transporting of Jewish holy lamps to the Seville cathedral. Juan I of Castile dies in Alcala de Henares. Conversion of Solomon Halevi (Pablo de Santa Maria), chief rabbi of Castile, and his entire family.
1391  In June, the huge pogrom against Jews in Valencia and Barcelona begins.
1392  Juan I of Aragon founds Barcelona's second aljama and permits the creation of a new rabbinical college.
1395  Henry III of Castile castigates the archdean of Ecija as a "persecutor of the people."
1401  Martin I forbids the reconstruction of the Barcelona Jewish quarter. Carlos of Navarra sells the property of his kingdom's Jews.
1404  The courts of Valladolid are the only ones in Castile to declare themselves favourable to the persecuted Jews of the kingdom.
1406  Death of Henry III of Castile. His physician, Don Meir, is accused of having caused it, and is submitted to torture, from which he dies.
1408  Castilian and Aragonese Jews forbidden to live outside the juderias and obliged to wear distinctive markings.
1412  Reduction of the statute of "convivencia" between Jews and Christians proposed by Queen Catherine of Lancaster and possibly written out and directed by the Burgos bishop Don Pablo de Santa Maria, himself a converted Jew. The Domenican Vicente Ferrer begins his preaching to work on the mass conversion of peninsular Jews. The synagogue is turned into a church, today Corpus Christi. Restrictive laws of Ayllon and Cifuentes.
1413  The so-called Disputations of Tortosa: José HaLorki, fanatic converso,debates against rabbis of the Aragon aljamas.
1415  Bull of Pope Benedict XIII, the Antipope, seemingly against the Jews. It provokes mass conversions. Synagogues in Barbastro and several Catalan towns converted to churches.
1424  Alphonso V of Aragon forbids Jews to settle in Barcelona, permitting only transit residency permits, and only if they wear distinguishing signs.
1429  An epidemic decimates the Zaragoza juderia.
1432  Jewish synod in Valladolid, presided over by Rabbi Abraham Benveniste.
1434  Council of Basel. Castile's representative to it is Alphonso of Cartagena, a converso, son of the bishop Pablo de Santa Maria. His defence of social and ecclesiastic privileges of Castile is remembered.
1435  Pablo de Santa Maria dies (converso and archbishop of Burgos)
1448  A new epidemic gravely affects the Aragon juderias.
1449  Thirteen Jews from Toledo's main Jewish families are excluded from their public posts after a massacre in the aljama. Pillaging and murders in the juderia of Ciudad Real.
1461  The Fortalitium Fidei of the converso Brother Alonso de Espina, against the Jews; will be used in inquisitors' manuals.
1467  Toledo conversos instigate an uprising in the city and are severely punished.
1469  Complaint in the Cortes of Ocaña, about the usury activities of Castilian Jews.
1473  The "Perpetual Alamanach" appears, by the Salamanca Jew Abraham Zacuto. Burning of Jews in Valladolid, persecution of conversos in Cordova.
1474  The mayor of the Alcazar of Segovia, the converso Andres Cabrera, manages with great difficulty to avoid a massive massacre of the Jews in Segovia's aljama.
1476  A supposed Jewish religious service on Good Friday provokes a violent popular reaction against the Jews in Castile.
1480  The Cortes called in Toledo agree on forbidding "convivencia" of Jews and Christians in Castile. Chief inquisitors named in Castile and Aragon.
1481  Publication of an edict of amnesty for 20 thousand conversos in Castile to escape the tribunals of the Inquisition, which begins to operate in Seville.
1482  First Jewish printing press installed in Guadalajara. David Kimhi's "Commentaries" are published.
1483  A tribunal of the Holy Office set up in Ciudad Real. New chief inquistor named.
1484  Burgos administrators act to stop Jews from doing business in comestibles and victuals.
1485  Expulsion of the Jews from Andalusia completed.
1486  The city of Vitoria takes repressive measures against its Jews.
1487  The Catholic Monarchs take Malaga. Don Abraham Senior, royal administrator, manages to save many Jews for 20,000 doblas jaquesas, sending them towards Africa in two galleys.
1491  The siege of Granada begins. Don Abraham Senior and Don Isaac Abravanel help fill the Christian coffers. Trial of the so-called Niño de la Guardia.
1492  January: Granada is taken. The city's Jews given assurances. Edict of Expulsion, decreed by the Kings of Castile and Aragon. July: the non-converted Jews of Spain leave.